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- Underground management: an examination of World War II resistance movements
- “The Zookeeper’s Wife” a beautiful, moving portrayal of the Polish underground during WWII
A Belarusian representative body — the Belarusian Central Council — was created under German control in but did not receive any real power from the German administration and concentrated mainly on managing social issues and education. Belarusian national military units the Belarusian Home Defence were only created a few months before the end of the German occupation. Some Belarusian collaborators participated in various massacres of Jews and Belarusian villagers, however, most of these massacres had to be carried out by Baltic and Ukrainian collaborators because of a relatively small willingness of Belarusians to participate.
Many of the Belarusian collaborators retreated with German forces in the wake of the Red Army advance. The division participated in a small number of combats in France but demonstrated active disloyalty to the Nazis and saw mass desertion. Among these battalions were 18, Armenians, 13, Azerbaijanis, 14, Georgians, and 10, men from the "North Caucasus. The Armenian Revolutionary Federation the Dashnaks were suppressed in Armenia when the Armenian Republic was conquered by the Russian Bolsheviks in and ceased to exist.
The Armenian Legion under the leadership of Drastamat Kanayan participated in the occupation of the Crimean Peninsula and the Caucasus. Until the end of it published a weekly journal, Armenian, edited by Viken Shantn who also broadcast on Radio Berlin with the aid of Dr.
Read PDF Underground Management: An Examination of World War II Resistance Movements
Paul Rohrbach. The British territory of the Straits Settlements came under Japanese occupation after the fiasco suffered by Commonwealth forces in the Battle of Singapore. The Straits Settlements Police Force came under the control of the Japanese and all vessels owned by the Marine Police were confiscated. Prior to being invaded by Nazi Germany , the Yugoslav government was working on forging a pact with Germany. Angered by what he perceived as treason, Hitler invaded the Kingdom of Yugoslavia without warning on 6 April Eleven days later Yugoslavia capitulated.
Although they are of German ethnicity, it is important to note that officially Yugoslavia was their country. Volksdeutsche collaborators were the most common in the former territory of Yugoslavia. Soldiers of the division are noted to have reportedly brutally punished civilians accused of, or proven to be working with partisans in both Occupied Serbia and the Independent State of Croatia , going so far as to level entire villages with no buildings being exempt from destruction.
Due to the collaboration, Josip Broz Tito , leader of the post-war Communist regime , declared the rights of ethnic Germans to be null and seized all of their property as well as expelling hundreds of thousands of them with no fair trial.
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The "Poglavnik" also stated that "Croats are not Slavs, but Germanic by blood and race". Most Chetniks in Yugoslavia collaborated with the Axis occupation to one degree or another in order to fight the rival Partisan resistance, whom they viewed as their primary enemy, by establishing modus vivendi or operating as "legalised" auxiliary forces under Axis control. The Italian governorate of Montenegro was established as an Italian protectorate with the support of Montenegrin separatists known as Greens. In Bulgaria-annexed Yugoslav Macedonia, the Ohrana was organized by the occupation authority as auxiliary security forces.
By June , the military value was deemed low in lieu of partisan aggression and by November it was disbanded. The remaining cadre, now called Kampfgruppe Skanderbeg, was transferred to the Prinz Eugen Division where they successfully participated in actions against Tito's partisans in December The emblem of the division was a black Albanian eagle.
Their agenda was the creation of " Ethnic Albania ". The Slovene Home Guard was a collaborationist force formed in September in the area of the Province of Ljubljana then a part of Italy. It functioned like most collaborationist forces in Axis -occupied Europe during World War II, but had limited autonomy, and at first functioned as an auxiliary police force that assisted the Germans in anti- Partisan actions.
Later, it gained more autonomy and conducted most of the anti-partisan operations in the Province of Ljubljana. Much of the Guard's equipment was Italian confiscated when Italy dropped out of the war in , although German weapons and equipment were used as well, especially later in the war. Similar, but much smaller units, were also formed in the Littoral Primorska and Upper Carniola Gorenjska. The policy of the Island governments, acting under instructions from the British government communicated before the occupation, was one of passive co-operation, although this has been criticised,  particularly in the treatment of the few Jews in the islands.
These measures were administered by the Bailiff and the Aliens Office. Following the liberation of allegations against those accused of collaborating with the occupying authorities were investigated. By November , the UK Home Secretary was in a position to inform the UK House of Commons  that most of the allegations lacked substance and only 12 cases of collaboration were considered for prosecution, but the Director of Public Prosecutions had ruled out prosecutions on insufficient grounds.
In particular, it was decided that there were no legal grounds for proceeding against those alleged to have informed to the occupying authorities against their fellow-citizens. In Jersey and Guernsey , laws   were passed to retrospectively confiscate the financial gains made by war profiteers and black marketeers, although these measures also affected those who had made legitimate profits during the years of military occupation.
During the occupation, cases of women fraternising with German soldiers had aroused indignation among some citizens. In the hours following the liberation, members of the British liberating forces were obliged to intervene to prevent revenge attacks.
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Research by British historian Adrian Weale has identified 54 men   who belonged to this unit at one time or another, some for only a few days. At no time did it reach more than 27 men in strength. Although official Nazi policy barred non-Germans from joining the regular German army, the Wehrmacht, volunteers from most occupied countries and even a small number from some Commonwealth countries.
Overall, nearly , Waffen-SS members were non-German, with some countries such as Belgium and the Netherlands contributing thousands of volunteers. This volunteer army initially counted some 10, volunteers and would later become the 33rd Waffen SS division, one of the first SS divisions composed mostly of foreigners. Following is a list of the 18 largest Waffen SS divisions composed mostly or entirely of foreign volunteers note that there were other foreign Waffen SS divisions composed mostly of forced conscripts.
Apart from frontline units, volunteers also played an important role in the large Schutzmannschaft units in the German-occupied territories in Eastern Europe. After Operation Barbarossa recruitment of local forces began almost immediately mostly by initiative of Heinrich Himmler.
These forces were not members of the regular armed forces and were not intended for frontline duty, but were instead used for rear echelon activities including maintaining the peace, fighting partisans , acting as police and organizing supplies for the front lines.
In the later years of the war, these units numbered almost , The Nuremberg Trials , in declaring the Waffen SS a criminal organisation, explicitly excluded conscripts , who had committed no crimes. High Commission in Germany and the U. Displaced Persons Commission clarified the U. Though Germany was trying to murder all Jews in the Holocaust , a minority of Jews chose to collaborate with the Germans. Jewish agents helped the Germans in return for limited freedom and other compensations food, money for the collaborators and their relatives.
During the war, some Jewish collaborators were executed by the Polish underground. A number of international companies have been accused of having collaborated with Nazi Germany before their home countries' entry into World War II , though it has been debated whether the term "collaboration" is applicable to business dealings outside the context of overt war. German financial operations worldwide were facilitated by banks such as the Bank for International Settlements , Chase and Morgan , and Union Banking Corporation. Rosenbaum writes: "American companies had every reason to know that the Nazi regime was using IG Farben and other cartels as weapons of economic warfare"; and he notes that "as the US entered the war, it found that some technologies or resources could not be procured, because they were forfeited by American companies as part of business deals with their German counterparts.
The Vichy government in France is one of the best known and most significant examples of collaboration between former enemies of Germany and Germany itself. When the French Vichy government emerged at the same time of the Free French in London there was much confusion regarding the loyalty of French overseas colonies and more importantly their overseas armies and naval fleet.
The reluctance of Vichy France to either disarm or surrender their naval fleet resulted in the British destruction of the French Fleet at Mers-el-Kebir on 3 July Later in the war French colonies were frequently used as staging areas for invasions or airbases for the Axis powers both in Indo China and Syria. This resulted in the invasion of Syria and Lebanon with the capture of Damascus on 17 June and later the Battle of Madagascar against Vichy French forces which lasted for seven months until November the same year.
Denmark's government cooperated with the German occupiers until and actively helped recruit members for the Nordland and Wiking Waffen SS divisions and helped organize trade and sale of industrial and agricultural products to Germany. In Greece, the three quisling prime ministers Georgios Tsolakoglou , Konstantinos Logothetopoulos and Ioannis Rallis cooperated with the Axis authorities.
Agricultural products especially tobacco were sent to Germany, Greek "volunteers" were sent to work to German factories, and special armed forces such as the Security Battalions were created to fight along German soldiers against the Allies and the Resistance movement. In Norway the government successfully managed to escape to London but Vidkun Quisling established a puppet regime in its absence—albeit with little support from the local population.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Diplomacy Declarations of war Engagements Operations. Eastern Front Manhattan Project. Main article: German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Underground management: an examination of World War II resistance movements
Main article: German occupation of Denmark. Main article: Hellenic State — See also: Cham Albanian collaboration with the Axis. Main article: Japanese occupation of Indonesia. Main article: Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force.
“The Zookeeper’s Wife” a beautiful, moving portrayal of the Polish underground during WWII
Main article: Luxembourgish collaboration with Nazi Germany. Main article: Nederlandsche SS. Further information: Category:Dutch collaborators with Nazi Germany.
Main article: Collaboration in German-occupied Poland. Main article: Ukrainian collaborationism with the Axis powers.
Main article: Independent State of Croatia. Main article: Government of National Salvation. Main article: British Free Corps.